As of 2019, Android held an 86 percent dominance of the smartphone operating system market. Clearly, Android is the most popular smartphone operating system. Apple’s IOS is its sole opponent in the smartphone operating system industry right now. However, Android is not that old. The first Android smartphone was released in September 2008, and it did not take long for Android to crush all of its competitors, with the exception of the IOS.

Android history

Throughout these years, a number of Android versions with improved functionality were introduced, cementing Android’s position as the leading smartphone operating system. In this essay, we will look at the history of Android and how it has evolved. Android versions undoubtedly played an influence in the evolution of mobile apps.

in this article you will find full Android history from ROM 1.0 TO ANDROID 10.

Android history

Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, and Chris White established in Palo Alto, California in October 2003. The company’s primary goal at the time was to develop an innovative operating system for digital cameras. However, the business quickly discovered that there is no large market for digital cameras, so they turned their focus to developing Android as a mobile operating system. As competitors, they mostly targeted Symbian and Microsoft Windows Mobile. Nonetheless, there were no investors for Android.

Rubin’s close buddy, Steve Perlman, donated him $10,000, which resulted in the birth of Android. Android was purchased by Google for $50 million in July 2005. As part of the purchase, the majority of its important personnel, including a few founders, joined Google.

Google’s Android team began working with Rubin as the team leader. Google did not divulge anything about its Android project at the time.

The early prototype resembled BlackBerry cellphones. It lacked a touch screen and featured a QWERTY keypad. This did not go well because Apple introduced the first iPhone in 2007.

Other competitors, Nokia and Blackberry, soon followed suit, announcing the inclusion of touchscreens in their smartphones. Google decided that if they wanted to compete with other companies, they needed to convert to a product with a touch function. The evolution of the Android mobile operating system through its several iterations, beginning in 2008, is shown here.

Android now powers not only mobile phones, tablet PCs, and ebook readers, but also IoT devices and smart bicycles, which would not have crossed the minds of Android project founders Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, and Chris White back when it was marketed as a smart operating system for digital cameras.

Ordered list of Android versions (Android history)

Android 1.0 (September 23, 2008)

The HTC Dream, commonly known as the T-Mobile G1, was the first smartphone in Android history with an Android operating system to be released in 2008. It had a touchscreen display and a pop-up QWERTY keypad. The smartphone did not go well because it had numerous problems. It contained Android 1.0, and it marked the beginning of Android’s adventure. This version of Android (and the first two versions) has no official or code names.

Android 1.1 (February 9, 2009)

Despite the fact that the first two public versions of Android (1.0 and 1.1) in Android history lacked code names, Android 1.1 was unofficially dubbed Petit Four. This was published in February 2009, just four months after the release of Android 1.0, but there were no significant modifications from the previous version. However, one significant advantage that Android gained with this version was the ability to demonstrate to users the simplicity with which later updates with incremental improvements could be installed, as no other platform had that capability at the time. This became clear later, when Android launched four versions in 2009, including version 1.1.

Android 1.5 Cupcake (April 27, 2009)

Version 1.5 was the first to bear the name Cupcake, and Google has continued to use this naming convention for Android versions to this day. In April of 2009, the cupcake was introduced. It has a lot of new features and enhancements. Some of its capabilities, such as the ability to post movies to YouTube, support for third-party keyboards, and functionality such as automatically rotating the phone’s screen to the correct places, are still accessible on Android today.

The Android 1.5 cupcake was present in the first Samsung Galaxy phone.

Android 1.6 Donut (September 15, 2009)

Five months later, Google released the following version. It was Android 1.6 Donut at the time. Donut’s key feature was that it supported carriers that used CDMA-based networks. This was a huge positive because it allowed all carriers around the world to sell cellphones running the Android operating system.

It also had capabilities such as rapid switching between Cameras, Camcorder, and Gallery, which could help to speed the image-capture process. The Quick Search Box was also implemented. There were further features such as the Power Controlling widget, which could handle Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, the Global Positioning System (GPS), and so on.

One of the smartphones, the Dell Streak, came with the Donut operating system. It had a 5-inch screen, which was quite large at the time. It did not go down well with the general public.

Android 2.0-2.1 Eclair (October 26, 2009)

Google released the second version of Android, dubbed Eclair, in October 2009. It was the first Android version to include text-to-speech functionality. It also added support for multiple accounts, live wallpapers, navigation using Google Maps, and a slew of other new features.

The Motorola Droid, which was also the first Android phone distributed by Verizon Wireless, was the first smartphone featuring the Android 2.0 version.

Android 2.2 Froyo (May 20, 2010)

In May 2010, the following edition, Froyo, short for Frozen Yogurt, was released. Wi-Fi mobile hotspot functions were introduced in this version. It also contained flash support, push notifications via the Android Cloud to Device Messaging (C2DM) service, and other features.

Google’s Nexus One formerly ran Android 2.1, however it was immediately upgraded to Android 2.2 Froyo.

Android 2.3 Gingerbread (December 6, 2010)

In September 2010, Android 2.3 Gingerbread was released. This version incorporated a number of enhancements, including an overhauled UI design that increased efficiency and ease-of-use. It could accommodate extra-large screen sizes and resolutions. More capabilities were introduced, including native support for SIP VoIP internet telephones, improved text inputs utilizing the virtual keyboard, improved text recommendations, and voice input functionality. One of its standout characteristics was its support for smartphone NFC (near field communication) functions.

The Nexus S was the first Android smartphone to have this version. Google and Samsung collaborated in its creation. This iteration also paved the way for a selfie. Multiple cameras were supported, as well as video chat within Google Talk.

Android 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich (October 18, 2011)

In October of 2011, Ice Cream Sandwich was released. It featured a lot of features. The previous Honeycomb edition’s features were incorporated into the Ice Cream Sandwich version. This version was the first to enable the functionality of unlocking the phone via the camera. This feature will change dramatically in the future years. Support for all on-screen buttons, the ability to monitor mobile and Wi-Fi data usage, and swipe motions to dismiss notifications and browser tabs were among the other noteworthy changes with Ice Cream Sandwich.

Android 4.1-4.3 Jelly Bean (July 9, 2012)

In June 2012, Google released Android 4.1 with the Jelly Bean branding. Google released two more Jelly Bean versions, Android 4.2 and 4.3, in October 2012 and July 2013, respectively. The notification section has been greatly enhanced in this edition. Android 4.2 includes full support for Google Chrome (Android version). Android’s touch responsiveness has also been enhanced. Jelly Bean was the first Android version to allow natively done emoji and screensavers.

Jelly Bean was pre-installed on Nexus 7 tablets. This version of Android is still used by many Android smartphones.

Android 4.4 KitKat (October 31, 2013)

Google contacted Nestle, the creator of KitKat chocolate, and asked permission to use the name of the chocolate bar in the next version of Android. Nestle agreed, and in September 2013, Android 4.4 KitKat was released. KitKat didn’t have a lot of features. KitKat, on the other hand, could run on handsets with as little as 512 MB of RAM. It was because KitKat used the Android Runtime (ART), which was still experimental, instead of the DVM (Dalvik Virtual Machine) that Android originally used. This increased Android’s market share to the next level. Phone manufacturers can now run Android on lower-cost devices.

The KitKat version of Android was installed on Google’s Nexus 5. KitKat is still available on a large number of handsets around the world.

Android 5.0 Lollipop (November 12, 2014)

In June 2014, Android 5.0 Lollipop was released. Google’s new Material Design language debuted in Lollipop, bringing significant aesthetic improvements to the Android UI. It contained UI modifications such as a redesigned navigation bar and better-looking lock-screen alerts, among other things. It introduced the Flat Design principle. Google added to the battery life of Android devices with Doze mode, which kills background programs when the display is turned off.

Lollipop was originally used on Google’s Nexus 6 and Nexus 9 tablets.

Android 6.0 Marshmallow (October 5, 2015)

The Android 6.0 version was originally titled Macadamia Nut Cookie, however it was renamed Marshmallow in May 2015. It introduced numerous new features, including as a vertically scrolling app drawer and Google Now on Tap. This was the first version to have native functionality for unlocking the smartphone with biometric authentication (fingerprint). Support for USB Type C was added, while Android Pay was launched in Marshmallow.

The Nexus 6P and Nexus 5X smartphones from Google were the first to ship with Marshmallow.

Android 7.0 Nougat (August 22, 2016)

In August 2016, Android 7.0 Nougat was released to enter Android history. It introduced multitasking features, which were designed specifically for smartphones with larger screens. It supported split-screen mode and quick app switching.

Google has made many improvements behind the scenes, such as moving to a new JIT compiler that might speed up apps.

Android 7.0 Nougat was released for Google’s Pixel and Pixel XL smartphones, as well as the LG V20.

Android 8.0 Oreo (August 21, 2017)

This was Google’s second usage of a trademark term for an Android version, the first being KitKat in Android history. In August of 2017, Android 8.0 Oreo was released. Many visual modifications were introduced, such as native support for picture-in-picture mode, new autofill APIs that could aid in better managing passwords and fill data, notification channels, and much more.

Android 9.0 Pie (August 6, 2018)

In August 2018, the next major version was launched. It included a slew of new features and enhancements. This version has a new home button. When you swipe up, it pulls up the apps you’ve recently used, a search bar, and five app suggestions at the bottom. Swiping left to see the presently running apps was added as a new option. Battery life has also been improved in this edition. Shush, a new feature has been added as well. It instantly activates the Do Not Disturb mode on the smartphone. A slew of new features have also been added.

Android 10 (September 3, 2019)

Finally, Google decided to abandon the practice of naming Android versions after sweets and pastries. It was released in September of 2019. A number of enhancements have been made, including compatibility for the future foldable smartphones with flexible displays. Android 10 also offers a system-wide dark mode, as well as newly added gesture navigation control, smart reply for all messaging apps, and a more effective sharing menu. It also gives you more control over app-based permissions.

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